Polio is an acute communicable disease caused by any 1 of three poliovirus serotypes (types 1, 2, 3). Route of spread for this virus is faecal- oral and oral to oral in places of poor oral hygiene.
In 1988 annual global burden of paralytic polio was > 350000 cases with wild type virus in more than 125 countries. WHA (world health assembly) resolved to eradicate polio by year 2000 and Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established. Worldwide sustained use of polio vaccine since 1988 has led to precipitous drop by >99% and no of endemic countries from 125 to 3.
Globally last case of polio caused by circulating WPV type 2 occurred in India in 1999. Nigeria, Pakistan, Afghanistan remain endemic for WPV type 1. Israel shifted to all inactivated immunization schedule in 2004. rnIndia is going to introduce IPV from 1st November 2015