Iron deficiency anemia and vulnerabilities to febrile seizure among Sudanese children
Mashaer Abidlqader, Isam ahmed sadik, Nazra sayed Osman, Nagah Abd elwahab Mohammed, Mohmed abid alhmeed, Nahla Mohammed Elzaki
Febrile seizures are the most common seizure disorder in childhood, affecting 2-5% of children. Research of the association between iron deficiency and seizures has shown conflicting results. No previous study had been conducted in Sudan. So the present study was carried out to compare the IDA rates in FS children with those in the febrile children without seizure. A total of 148 patients fulfilled the study criteria of febrile seizure or any febrile illness. These were divided into two groups with children having febrile seizures comprised the cases while those having only febrile illness with no seizures comprised the controls. Both groups had equal number of children matched for age and gender. Workup for seizures and iron deficiency anemia was done and data was analyzed using SPSS version 10. At P≤0.05 body temperature were statically significant P value 0.001 with mean (39.07±0.60, 38.70±0.59) for case and control. Iron deficiency anemia found in 62.7% of the cases and 34.2% of the control group OR=3.2. Mean level of HB, MCV, MCH, SF, SI were lower in cases than in controls with significant Odd Ratio and Relative Risk. Hb (9.98+1.85) and (11.14+1.81) OR 3.26 RR 1.4.MCV (70.06+8.10) and (75.94+8.88) OR3.2 RR1.77. MCH (22.74+3.67) and (25.41+4.95) OR 3.41 RR1.83.SF (16.75+13.89) and (19.76+10.45) OR 2.73 RR 1.63.SI (38.97+32.92) and (52.39+30.40) OR 3.2 RR 1.77.TIBC (4.17+8.66) and (3.69+9.00) OR 0.31 RR 0.56 in cases and controls respectively. Lower hematological indices were found in anemic patients with simple seizure than those who are anemic with complex seizure with differences statistically significant in MCV, RDW, SF, SI and TIBC. HB 28 (52.8%) and 25(47.2%) P= 0.221. MCV 27(57.4%) and 20(42.6%) P=0.001. MCH 27 (56.2%) and 21(43.8%) P=0.064.SF 25(56.8%) and 19 (43.2%) P=0.012. SI 27(57.4%) and 20 (42.6%) P=0.001.TIBC 27(57.4%) and 20 (42.6%) P=0.001 for participants with simple and complex seizure respectively. Generalized seizure was found in 43.7% of patients with iron deficiency compared to 56.4% of control group. Partial seizure 51.7% and 48.3% Simple seizure 57.4%and 42.3% Complex seizure 42.9% and 57.1%. Duration of seizure in minutes (7.52 ± 3.77) and (5.17 ± 2.95) for patients with iron deficiency and those without iron deficiency respectively. Iron deficiency anemia is more in children with simple than complex seizure with lower hematological indices in cases with simple than with complex seizures with statistically significant MCV, SF, SI and TIBC. Children with risk factors of Iron Deficiency Anemia should be identified, screened and treated.