Background: Diabetes is the most common medical complication during pregnancy, yet guidelines regarding the care of these infants of diabetic mother are not well established.
Objectives: To assess the spectrum of immediate complications of IDMs especially hypoglycemia, to find out the association between glucose levels in the mother at different periods of gestation, cord blood glucose and blood glucose levels in the neonate.
Methods: A prospective cohort study was done in Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad involving 75 consecutive live born infants of diabetic mothers. Maternal data was obtained from antenatal records. The infant was subjected to glucose estimation at predetermined intervals, screened for other morbidity patterns and followed up at early infancy.
Results: The commonest complications were congenital anomalies (most of which were minor) and hyperbilirubinemia both occurring in 42%. Hypoglycemia was found in 24%, usually asymptomatic, occurred within first 2hrs of life and responded to enteral feeds. Neonatal glucose levels moderately correlated with cord blood glucose (r=0.543; p<0.001) but not with intrapartum or antenatal glucose values.
Interpretation and conclusion: Infants of diabetic mother are high risk neonates requiring intensive monitoring but their blood glucose measurements may be limited to initial 2 hrs. minimising trauma and expense. Routine measurement of cord blood glucose and optimal glycemic control in the mother may be indicated to predict and prevent hypoglycemia. The short term prognosis appears to be bright in these infants.