Cardiovascular disease is the most frequent cause of death in persons over the age 50 years and most importantly it is responsible for considerable morbidity and large burden of disability in the community. Cardiovascular diseases are an increasing cause of admissions among elderly in India, yet little research is available on pattern and magnitude of the problem.
Objective: To determine the pattern of cardiovascular disease in elderly patients admitted in medical wards at tertiary care teaching hospital in western India.
Methodology: This was a descriptive cross sectional study that was carried our between October 2016 and October 2017. Social demographic information; medical history physical examination; electrocardiographic and echocardiography examination; biochemical and haematological parameters were collected from study patients.
Results: One hundred eighty five (185) elderly patients admitted and were enrolled into the study. Majority, 116 (62.7%), were male. Their mean age was 66.1 (SD, 9.3; range, 50 87) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 23.9 (SD, 3.9; range, 16.6 - 40.1) kg/m2. Hypertension was the most frequent condition encountered affecting both males (67.2%) and females (68.1%). Congestive heart failure was second common condition affecting 37% elderly patients. According to the echocardiogram findings, among 185 elderly patients 68.6% were diagnosed to have cardiovascular disease. There were no significant sex differences in the prevalence of cardiac disease (p>005). The commonest echocardiographic diagnosis were left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) secondary to hypertension found in 45%, diastolic dysfunction found in 31% and systolic dysfunction 25%.The least common types were septal defect, pulmonary hypertension and calcified mitral valve found in one per cent each. The commonest clinical presentations were palpitations, dyspnoea, orthopnoea, pedal oedema and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Obese patients presenting with cardiovascular abnormalities were 9 (7.1%). Anaemia was the leading co-morbidity affecting 90.3% of the patients.
Conclusion: Hypertension, congestive heart failure and left ventricular hypertrophy were the commonest cardiovascular diseases among elderly patients. Coexistence of anaemia, stroke, renal impairment and diabetes was also frequent.