Surgical site infections (SSI) are the third most commonly reported nosocomial infections and they account for approximately a quarter of all nosocomial infections. They are responsible for increasing hospital stay which results in social and economic loss to the patient and family. Host factors, wound factors and surgery related factors are implicated in causation of SSI. The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence of postoperative surgical site infections and to evaluate the risk factors among Caesarean sections, Abdominal and Vaginal Hysterectomies.
Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out over a period of 6 months from February 2017 to August 2017. Patients undergoing Caesarean sections, Abdominal and Vaginal Hysterectomies who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. All patients suspected of having SSI within 10 days of operation were identified. Suspected SSI was confirmed by culture and sensitivity of wound swabs as soon as the diagnosis was suspected.
Results: During study period, 120 patients underwent Caesarean sections, Abdominal and Vaginal Hysterectomies. Out of which 21patients developed SSI with overall prevalence being 17.5%. Mean age among the study group was 36.69±13.54 years. Mean duration of all surgeries was 56.54±22.74min. Anaemia 30.8%, hypertension 22%, diabetes 17%, obesity 8% were the common risk factors noted among infected patients.
Conclusion: SSI continues to be a significant postoperative complication. Anaemia, hypertension, diabetes and obesity were the risk factors associated and increased prevalence of SSI seen in emergency surgeries. SSI increases morbidity by increasing duration of hospital stay. Better understanding of risk factors for SSI can help target efforts at reducing modifiable risks to prevent infection and to better risk stratification in reporting quality outcomes.