The most common method of postoperative pain relief is the traditional use of 'on demand' intramuscular opioid injections. Better pain relief can be obtained with newer techniques such as epidural opioids and patient controlled analgesia. The current study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of opioid analgesics, Morphine, Butorphanol and Fentanyl along with local Anaesthetic Bupivacaine, when given epidurally, for postoperative pain management in lower abdominal surgeries.
The maximum patients in the included study groups are from age 20 to 30 years. The Control group administered showed slow onset and Fentanyl administered group shows fastest onset. The duration of the analgesia is seen maximum in morphine administered patients. The duration of sedation is seen maximum in morphine administered patients. The Bupivacaine administered patients observed immediate onset of sedation. The maximum number of patients had seen the nausea and vomiting side effects in morphine group patients. In Bupivacaine administered patients are observed with hypotension as side effects prominently.
In conclusion, Morphine or Butorphanol along with Bupivacaine can be safely given epidurally to obtain effective post-operative analgesia after lower abdominal surgeries. While epidural Fentanyl and Bupivacaine combination can also be safely and effectively used for post-operative analgesia in lower abdominal surgeries but repeated administrations may be required.