The major cause of death in some cases is the varicose veins. This affects in 15% males and 25% females. The prevalence remains unknown in Indian population. Early diagnosis and treatment will save the complications due to varicose veins. The knowledge of specific case is necessary to provide appropriate treatment.
Aim: Is to observe the patterns of deep venous junctions, competency of perforators and their distribution and prevalence of deep venous reflux in Indian patients.
Methodology and results: The study was conducted in 100 patients over period of two years. The patients with varicose veins as a result of thrombophlebitis or venous thrombosis were excluded from this study. Examinations were conducted using Ultramark 9 machine having a MHz linear probe. Ultrasound scanning, color and spectral Doppler were used for the study. The surface of the lower limb was examined. Grading was done to assign the patients to the CEAP grades. 6 patients scored 0, 75 patients scored 1, 18 patients had a score of 2 while 1 patient had the score 3. The incompetence was assed using the Doppler analysis during the Valsalva maneuver.
Discussion: The chronic venous conditions will be caused by reflux. This is a retrograde flow of blood in veins which occurs due to incompetent or absent valves. This way, high pressure blood moves from deep veins into superficial veins causing various adverse effects such as pigmentation of the skin and ulceration. The Doppler test is considered to be the best standard for measuring the extent of the venous damage in a non-invasive yet functional manner.
Conclusion: patients with varicose veins have multiple site incompetence as the most common pattern of their disease. The Color Doppler is useful in identifying the extent of reflux in patients for a complete diagnosis and incompetence mapping. This study revealed high prevalence of varicose veins among Indian patients. In this study, 59 cases had involvement of left limbs and 41 cases in right limbs.