Prevalence of bronchial asthma and risk factors: A clinical study
Dr. Lalit Kumar Mishra, Om Prakash Verma
Background: There has been a noticeable increase in the healthcare burden due to asthma globally. The prevalence of asthma varies widely in populations residing in different geographical areas and among different ethnic communities. The present study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of asthma and its risk factors.
Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted in the year 2016 which included 160 patients. Patients were informed regarding the study and written consent was taken. Patient data such as name, age, sex, occupation and income, education dietary habit, family history, atopic dermatitis, smoking and alcoholic habit, diabetes and type of cooking fuel were taken. The questionnaire was prepared and response was taken regarding demographical and environmental exposure factors which influence the prevalence of asthma. The general physical and medical examination was done in all patients.
Results: The present study consisted of males (120) and females (40). Maximum patients were seen in age group 31-40 (males- 44, females-15), followed by 41-50 (males-28, females- 10), 21-30 (males- 21, females- 7), 51-60 (males- 17, females- 4) and 61-70 (males- 10, females- 4). The difference among different age groups was significant. Type of cooking fuel used by patients was LPG (132) and biofuel (28). 110 patients were urban and 50 were rural. Type of occupation was labour (90), housewife (40) and business (30). 96 patients were illiterate and 64 were literate. 120 patients were low income and 40 with high income. 32 patients were vegetarians and 128 were non vegetarians. 35 patients were smokers, 37 were alcoholics and 62 were diabetics. Smokers were 21%, alcoholics were 23% and diabetics were 38% of asthmatics. In 96 patients, the family history was positive while in 64 patients, the family history was negative. Cough type asthma was seen in 80 patients, nocturnal type (3), allergic type (32) and occupational (18). The difference was significant (P-0.01).
Conclusion: Author concluded that the increased number of asthmatic patients may be due to the environmental pollution such as establishment of more industries and pollution caused by vehicles. So it is necessary to decrease the pollution which may decrease the number of asthmatics.