Vol. 4, Issue 11 (2018)
Diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus
Author(s): Zahra Rashki Ghalehnoo
Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that can cause a variety of illnesses through suppurative or nonsuppurative (toxin-mediated) means. The sudden appearance of local erythema around the mouth (redness and inflammation), which takes over the entire body over two days, is a characteristic of Scale skin syndrome. Bullous impetigo is the topical form of scale skin syndrome. In this syndrome, specific strains of Staphylococcus aureus generate toxins (such as phage type 71) as well as skin surface blisters. This disease is witnessed in young children and is highly contagious. Also toxic shock syndrome is produced by Staphylococcus aureus species that produce TSST-1 or enterotoxin B. Previously, TSST-1 was called enterotoxin B, pyrogenic exotoxin C, and enterotoxin F. (this toxin is similar to enterotoxin F). Folliculitis is the most cutaneous infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Folliculitis is a purulent infection of hair follicles that causes redness and swelling of the hair follicle. Furuncle is a developed folliculitis, and large painful protruded nodules appear that contain dead tissue (necrotic) in its lower region. As a consequence of the furuncles joining together and their extension into the deeper subcutaneous tissues, carbuncle may develop. Staphylococcus impetigo is commonly observed in children that are mainly produced on the face and organs, especially around the nose, and most likely spreads to other parts of the face through a running nose or at the time of nose blowing. Staphylococcus aureus is also the common agent for bacteremia. The highest prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus is witnessed in patients with diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular patients, and patients with granulocytic and immune deficiency. Staphylococcus pneumonia is considered as an important disease due to its high mortality (up to 50%). It may be observed in all age groups, but it is a rare disease with the exception of its association with the flu epidemic. Staphylococcus aureus is the cause of most cases of primary osteomyelitis. This disease is predominantly occurring in boys under the age of 12, and is often followed by the diffusion of a primary hemorrhage (ulcer or furuncle). To design appropriate empirical therapy, physicians should be knowledgeable about the disease caused by of Staphylococcus aureus in their communities. This article reviews the some important diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus.