Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Staphylococcus aureus
Zahra Rashki Ghalehnoo
Samples from pus, abscess, nasal swab, ulcer, burn area, sputum, and blood in cases of bacteremia, and urine, feces, vomit, spinal fluid, and joint fluid in cases of septicemia can be used. An appropriate sample for diagnosis of endocarditis due to artificial valves is blood drawn from the portal vein. In infections of joints and artificial organs, joint washing with sterile fluids and aspiration from the joint and in urinary tract infections sampling by clean-catch midstream technique leads to obtaining the desired organism. Samples from pus, purulent fluids, sputum, and urine should be inoculated directly on the surface of the blood agar culture medium or the thioglycollate broth tube. Staphylococci grow easily on typical laboratory media, especially if sheep blood is added. The sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus to antimicrobial medicines is different. 90% of strains isolated from patients or carriers are resistant to penicillin due to beta-lactamase (Penicillinase) production or to changes in the nature of penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). Methicillin-sensitive β-lactamase-producing strains can be treated with oxacillin, cloxacillin, and nafcillin; however, for the treatment of methicillin-resistant strains, vancomycin, teicoplanin and mupirocin are used). Staph VAX vaccine that has conjugated capsular polysaccharides is at the clinical trial stage. These tests are conducted on dialysis patients and a group of patients exposed to severe Staphylococcus aureus infections (12).