Vol. 4, Issue 3 (2018)
Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of bronchiolitis: A review
Author(s): Magid Reza Akbarizadeh
Abstract: The stages of diagnosis of bronchiolitis include (but not limited to): signs of upper respiratory tract infection or rhinorrhea, contact with people with upper respiratory tract infection before, signs of respiratory disease, including tachycardia penne, retraction, short breathing, long expiration, low oxygen saturation and wheezing at the age of under two years. The main problem for diagnosis of bronchiolitis is the differentiation of other diseases associated with wheezing. It is impossible to differentiate asthma by physical examination, but the age of the onset of the disease, the presence of fever and the lack of history (of a person or family) of asthma and allergies are the major contributors to differentiation. Bronchiolitis occurs primarily in the first year of life and is associated with fever. While asthma usually occurs in older children with repetitive visions, which are usually not accompanied by fever unless the respiratory tract infection of the asthma attack intensifies, bronchiolitis is difficult to distinguish from asthma during a wheezing attack. Bronchiolitis is a childhood illness with a peak between 2 and 6 months of age. Approximately 50% of children develop bronchiolitis during the first two years of life, and 80% of them develop this disease in the first year of life. The incidence of the disease rapidly develops between the ages of 1 and 2, after which bronchiolitis is uncommon.As age increases, the severity of infection with RSV is reduced, which indicates that age-related anatomical factors play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The need to repeat it every 15 to 20 minutes (up to 3 times) is prescribed. If no response was observed after bronchodillanur administration, bronchodillanur is no longer required, but if responding positively, bronchodilanor can be repeated every 1-4 hours. The pathogenesis of edema and mucosal secretion is one of the main problems in patients. On the other hand, at an earlier age, the synchronization of the edema and the small diameter of the brinchilles can result in less responses to the use of specific beta 2 stimulant drugs, such as salbutamol; but non-specific beta 2 stimulants such as epinephrine can be inhaled by stimulating the alpha-adrenergic receptors, the vessels of the mucous membrane of the airway wall are reduced and the patient's respiratory distress and edema, thereby, decrease.