Background: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic endocrine disorder of children and early adults of autoimmune origin. It is often complicated by other autoimmune disorders especially autoimmune thyroid disease characterized by the presence of thyroid antibodies to peroxidase and thyroglobulin. Using these auto antibodies, organ-specific autoimmunity may be detected before the development of autoimmune clinical disease. Thus the aim of the study is to find the prevalence of thyroid disorder and thyroid autoimmunity status in type1 diabetes mellitus.
Method: Data were collected from 100 type 1 Diabetic patients. They were tested for thyroid profile (TSH, total T3 and T4) and thyroid autoimmunity (thyroid peroxidase antibodies).
Results: The prevalence of thyroid disorder and thyroid autoimmunity was found to be 14% and 18% respectively in T1DM. Out of 18 thyroid peroxidase positive patients, 14 were hypothyroid and 4 were euthyroid. Over the 14 hypothyroid, only 3 were overt hypothyroid and the remaining 11 were subclinical hypothyroid. There was female preponderance for thyroid autoimmunity in T1DM. There is also significant association T1DM and development of thyroid autoimmunity.
Conclusion: There is higher incidence of thyroid disorder in type 1 diabetes mellitus which is usually subclinical. Coexisting thyroid disorder in type 1 diabetes may have a poor outcome on glucose control. Thus there is a need for periodic screening of thyroid profile in type1 diabetes mellitus.