Objectives: Lymph nodes are involved in immune response of the body. The underlying cause of lymphadenopathy may range from a treatable infectious etiology to a malignant neoplasm. Excision biopsy of the lymph node provides material to establish an early diagnosis. The aim was to study the spectrum of pathological lesions of the lymph node and to find out the incidence with respect to age, sex and site. The study also aimed at histopathological subtyping of the malignant tumours in order to assess the prognosis.
Materials & Methods: Our study includes 170 lymph node biopsies. The sections were stained with H&E and special stains like AFB stain, reticulin and Masson’s trichrome were done wherever needed.
Immunohistochemistry was performed in case of malignant lymphomas.
Results: Out of 170 biopsies received 114(67%) were from cervical region, 25(15%) from axilla, 20(11%) from inguinal, 9(5.7%) mesenteric and 2(1.3%) retroperitoneal.
Tuberculous lymphadenitis with 75(44.11%) cases was found to be the predominant lesion followed by reactive hyperplasia with 57(33.52%) cases. Amongst neoplastic disorders metastatic carcinomas with 13(7.64%) cases were found to be more common than primary lymphomas with 8(4.70%) cases. Viral lymphadenitis, dermatopathic lymphadenitis and Castleman’s disease had equal incidence (2.94% each). Kikuchi’s disease was found in only 2 cases. Non-neoplastic lesions were most common between 20-30 years whereas neoplastic lesions were more common between 50-60 years of age.
Conclusion: Non-neoplastic involvement of lymph nodes is much more common than neoplastic lesions with tuberculous lymphadenitis being the most common lesion irrespective of age and sex.