Introduction: Nutrient foramen is a natural opening into the shaft of a bone, allowing for passage of blood vessels into the medullary cavity. This supply is essential during the growing period, during the early phases of ossification, and in procedures such as bone grafts, tumor resections, traumas, congenital pseudoarthrosis, and in transplant techniques in orthopedics.
This study aims to determine the number, location and direction of nutrient foramina in human upper limb long bones of Indian population in Rajasthan state.
Material and Method: The present study was conducted on 200 upper limb long bones (50clavicles, 50 humeri, 50 radii, 50 Ulnae).
Results: The majority of the bones studied had a single nutrient foramen, which may represent a single source of blood supply. In the results, 68% of the clavicles had a single foramen, 26% had double foramina and 6% had no nutrient foramen, 92% of the humeri had a single foramen, 2% had double foramina and 6% had no foramen. For the radii, 96% had single nutrient foramen and 4% had no nutrient foramen. 96% of the ulnae had a single nutrient foramen and 4% had double nutrient foramen. The mean foraminal index for the upper limb bones was 49.76% for the clavicle, 57.26% for the humerus, 35.48% for the radius, and 34.53% for the ulna.
Conclusion: This study recorded data related to the population of Rajasthan state, providing ethnic data to be used for comparison and that may help in surgical procedures and in the interpretation of radiological images. Information and details about these foramina is of clinical importance, especially in surgical procedures like bone grafting and microsurgical vascularized bone transplantation.