Vol. 5, Issue 1 (2019)
Abnormal chest radiographic patterns in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Lagos State, Nigeria: A single center study
Author(s): Robert Oziegbe Akhigbe, Anthony Chukwuka Ugwu, Michael Promise Ogolodom, Beatrice Ukamaka Maduka, Bolaji Israel Jayeoba
Abstract: Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of ancientness also referred to as white plague which became the major cause of death globally. It is a major public health challenge in Nigeria with an estimated prevalence of 616 cases per 100,000. Conventional X-ray of the chest has been the simplest, cheapest and readily available radiographic imaging modality for the diagnosis and tracking of the stages of the disease by clinicians. This study was designed to evaluate the abnormal chest radiographic patterns in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Lagos state, Nigeria. Materials and methods: This is a cross sectional retrospective review of radiological reports of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed on conventional chest x-rays. Only radiological reports with information such as age, sex, clinical indications and PTB radiological findings were included in this study. A sample size of 181 were selected purposively using the inclusion criteria set for this study among radiological reports that fall within January,2015 to July,2018 and this study was conducted between August to November,2018. Ethical approval was obtained from the management of the study center and all patients’ information retrieved was treated with high level of confidentiality. A designed proforma was used for data collection. Both Excel 2013 version and statistical package for social sciences version 20 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, USA) were used for data processing and analysis. We adopted both descriptive and inferential (Chi-square X2) statistical tools for statistical analysis of the variables with statistical significance set at p<0.05. Results: The male to female ratio was 2.6:1 with 72.38% (n=131) male and 27.62% (n=50) female. Consolidation was highest 57.42% (n=104) and the least was pleural effusion 1.65% (n=3).Majority of the abnormal findings were located in the left upper zone of the lung 37.56% (n=68). Chi-square test revealed that there was no statistically significant relationship between sex and abnormal chest radiographic patterns (X2 = 9.545, p = 0.089). Chi-square analysis also revealed statistically significant difference in distribution of findings in the various anatomical locations (X2 = 118.8, p = 0.000). Conclusion: Consolidation was the most common abnormal chest radiographic pattern in pulmonary tuberculosis patients which was predominantly found in the left upper lobe of the lung. Majority were males when compared with their female counterpart. The most common age group was those < 30 years of age. There was no statistically significant relationship between age and abnormal chest radiographic patterns.