Vol. 5, Issue 1 (2019)
Vitamin D deficiency and coronary artery disease
Author(s): Dr. Anil Batta
Abstract: Sunlight is a rich source of Vitamin D (Vit D) that prevents us from numerous ailments such as autoimmune disorders, various types of cancer, and the above all cardiovascular diseases (CVD).Growing evidence has shown a strong association between vitamin D deficiency and hypertension, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. The mechanisms by which vitamin D exerts its cardiovascular protective effects are still not completely understood, but there is evidence that it participates in the regulation of renin-angiotensin system and the mechanisms of insulin sensitivity and activity of inflammatory cytokines, besides its direct cardiovascular actions. Several studies linking vitamin D deficiency with cardiometabolic risk as well as small randomized trials that have evaluated the cardiovascular effects of its supplementation are presented. However, large randomized placebo-controlled studies are still needed before we can definitively establish the role of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention and control of cardiovascular disease. Aims and Objectives:The aim of the present paper was to review the most important mechanisms explaining the possible association of vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular diseases, Vitamin D deficiency is a prevalent condition in many countries. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether deficient vitamin D status is associated with coronary artery disease considering cardiovascular risk factors. Material and Methods:We measured 50 (OH) D serum levels in 100 patients that were diagnosed with clinically diagnosed coronary artery disease and 50 individuals in the control group who were matched for age and sex with the patients and examined the association between serum 25 (OH) D and coronary artery disease with regard to cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion:Patients without significant lesions in coronary arteries presented the highest 25(OH)D level, significantly higher than patients with one-, two-, and three-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) (p < 0.01). Significantly lower level of the 25(OH) D was observed in patients hospitalized due to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in comparison to patients hospitalized due to stable CAD (p < 0.001). Lower 25(OH) D levels were observed in patients with the history of myocardial infarction (MI) in comparison to patients without previous MI (p < 0.001). In cardiac patients with diabetes, the higher number of stenotic coronary arteries is associated with lower values of the 25(OH) D. A group of male cardiac patients with diabetes with significant stenosis in three coronary arteries, hospitalized due to acute coronary syndrome, with a history of previous MI and hyperlipidemia presented the lowest vitamin D level.