Vol. 5, Issue 11 (2019)
Epistaxis-An etiological study of armed forces personnel in Bangladesh
Author(s): Md. Zakir Hossain, Salah Uddin Ahmmed, Shahbub Alam, Kazi Zahidul Hoque, Masumul Gani Chowdhury, Md. Ashraful Islam
Abstract: Introduction: Epistaxis is the most common ENT emergency and one of the commonest presentation in an emergency department. Its management can be challenging depending on the origin of bleeding and presence of precipitating factors. Objective: To assess the Epistaxis-An Etiological Study of Armed Forces Personnel in Bangladesh. Material and Methods: This is an Observational study where Patients referred to Combined Military Hospital and Central Medical Board, Dhaka Cantonment, Bangladesh with complaint of Epistaxis during the period of one and half year from 07th January 2018 to 06th July 2019 are studied for etiology. All admitted patients both in ENT department and Other departments with complaint of Epistaxis are subjected to routine tests like Clinical examination, Complete blood picture with Total leucocyte count and platelet count and Bleeding and Clotting time estimation, Erythrocyte Sedimentation tests, Renal function tests like Blood urea and Serum creatinine, Random blood sugar, X –Ray Paranasal sinuses, Diagnostic nasal endoscopy using 0 and 30 degree scopes, HIV and HbsAg tests. Results: In the present study, study group of 100 patients are chooses randomly from outpatient and inpatient and casualty departments of Combined Military Hospital and Central Medical Board Dhaka cantonment, Bangladesh with complaint of Epistaxis. Age and sex distributions among various etiologies of Epistaxis was studied and it was found to be more common in males when compared to females (male: female = 2.7: 1). Trauma was found to be the most common etiology (37%), more in young adult males (21-40 years). Next common cause is, idiopathic. Fingernail trauma is more common in male children. Among middle age group, Idiopathic and trauma are common.Among elderly, Hypertension was more common in 61-80 years age group. The site of bleeding was undetermined in a large majority of patients even after proper nasal endoscopy. Conclusion: Our study supports the view that the history of use of any anticoagulant or aspirin use and also history of recurrent epistaxis and bleeding from other sites of the body must be elicited in all the patients presenting with epistaxis.