Vol. 5, Issue 5 (2019)
Clinical evaluation of prevalence of respiratory tract infection in childrens from Bihar region
Author(s): Dr. Umesh Kumar, Dr. B. B Singh
Abstract: Childhood acute respiratory infection (ARI) is a significant public health problem especially in developing countries. Robust epidemiological data is not available on its incidence in India. As per World Health Organization estimates, ARI causes 3.9 million deaths throughout the world every year. It is one of the important priority area for the concerned stakeholders in health sector especially in developing countries including India. The occurrence of ARI is determined by the exposure to various risk factors. Air pollution is a risk factor for both acute and chronic respiratory disease. One half of the world's population is exposed to high concentrations of solid fuel smoke that are produced by inefficient open fires, mainly in the rural areas of developing countries. Solid fuel smoke possesses the majority of the toxins found in tobacco smoke and has also been associated with a variety of diseases including ARI in children. Hence the present study was planned for Clinical Evaluation of Prevalence of Respiratory Tract Infection in Childrens from Bihar Region. The study was conducted in Department of Paediatrics, ANMMCH, Gaya, Bihar from Sept 2016 to Aug 2018. Total 100 cases of the childrens attending to our hospital found positive for the respiratory tract infections were evaluated in the present study. In case of children <10 years, parents were contacted in their houses and the information was sought from them. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and associated risk factors that include family history of allergic disorder and asthma, fuel used for cooking, smoke outlet in the house were collected and discussed as below. The data generated from the present study concludes that indoor environmental pollution (use of cooking-fuel other than LPG) and nutritional factors (lack of breast-feeding, severe malnutrition) are modifiable major risk factors for severe pneumonia. Appropriate measures to reduce exposure of children to indoor environmental pollutants like smokes produced due to use of biomass may help to reduce severe ARTI.