Vol. 5, Issue 7 (2019)
Prevalence of electrolyte imbalance in hospitalized patients and relationship to outcome and duration of stay in orthopaedic department
Author(s): Dr. Dommeti Harika Devi, Dr. Kasireddy Mohana Priya, Dr. Seema Fatima, Dr. Raghava Dutt Mulukutla, Dr. Srirang Abkari, Sabita Sahoo, Dr. A Srinivasa Rao
Abstract: Background: Electrolyte imbalance is a severe and life-threatening condition, but its investigation and evaluation is often inadequate and inappropriate. The aim of the study is to identify the prevalence of electrolyte imbalance (Na & K) in hospitalized patients and to evaluate the relationship to their outcome and duration of stay in orthopedic department in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and methods: 150 patients of both genders and all age groups excluding pediatric and neonate patients were evaluated. Study was carried out in Udai Omni hospital, Hyderabad between mid-december 2018 to march 2019. Results: 150 patients were evaluated during the study period and electrolyte imbalance was found in 38 patients that is prevalence of electrolyte imbalance was 25.33%. This study has shown equal gender distribution of electrolyte imbalance (19 cases each) and are most commonly seen in elderly patients of age >60years (52.63%). The most common comorbid conditions seen in these 38 patients are Diabetes mellitus (DM), Hypertension (HTN), Hypothyroidism, Chronic kidney disease (CKD) etc. Most of the cases are seen with combined DM and HTN. Among all the electrolyte imbalance cases, the most commonly seen type of electrolyte imbalance are Hyponatremia and Hypokalemia (11 cases each). Most of the cases of electrolyte imbalance are seen pre-operatively. This study showed almost equal gender distribution of Hyponatremia. Distribution of Hypokalemia cases is relatively high in males. Out of 38 cases, 10 (26%) cases have shown increased duration of stay due to electrolyte imbalance. Among 38 cases, most commonly observed cause of electrolyte imbalance is CKD followed by these of diuretics. In this study most common presenting symptoms are constipation, nausea, vomiting, headache, confusion, weakness, dizziness and some patients were asymptomatic. Conclusion: In this prospective, observational study on orthopaedic patients, prevalence of different electrolyte imbalance are seen, in which Hyponatremia and Hypokalemia are more common in hospitalized patients. Electrolyte imbalance complicates the health conditions of the patients and leads to increased falls and fractures and duration of hospital stay.