Evaluation of alteration in renal parameters and serum electrolyte levels in cases of birth asphyxia
Dr. Baiju Kumar, Dr. NP Gupta
Hypoxic ischemic brain injury is the most important consequence of perinatal asphyxia. Sodium, potassium and calcium are the major electrolytes in human body, and any deviation from their normal levels in blood might cause convulsions, shock and other metabolic abnormalities. Calcium is an important second messenger in our body and also helps carrying out muscle function and acts as cofactor for several enzymatic activities. Body should maintain optimum level of these electrolytes in blood. Initial hypoglycemia is an important risk factor for perinatal brain injury. Hyperuricemia indirectly shows the severity of tissue injuries. Hyponatremia, hypocalcaemia, hypoglycemia, hyperuricemia are risk factors for perinatal brain injury. Knowledge of these abnormalities to the clinician is very valuable as it is an important variable affecting perinatal mortality. Immediate aggressive treatment of these abnormalities could modify the entire outcome of the babies. Hence based on above findings the present study was planned for Evaluation of Alteration in Renal Parameters and Serum Electrolyte Levels in Cases of Birth Asphyxia. The Present study was planned in Department of Pediatrics, Darbhanga Medical College & Hospital, Laheriasarai, Bihar. Total 50 cases were enrolled in the present study. The Group I consist of 25 cases diagnosed with the Birth asphyxia. The Group II consist of normal cases of newborns. Cord blood sample will be drawn in the labour room and sent for analysis of serum electrolytes, serum calcium, serum uric acid levels & serum creatinine levels. Calcium will be estimated by A25 autoanalyser of biosystems by arsenazo, uricase peroxidase & glucose oxidase method respectively. Serum electrolytes will be analyzed by ST-100 autoanalyser. The relevant parameters are recorded as per the preforma which include the identification data & Demographic characteristics. Perinatal asphyxia is an important cause of neonatal renal failure. Monitoring of blood levels of urea, serum creatinine, serum calcium and urine output helps in the early diagnosis and management of renal failure in birth asphyxia. However, in birth asphyxia, since non oliguric renal failure is common, monitoring only urine output does not help in the diagnosis of acute renal failure, the biochemical parameters in both blood and urine should be monitored. Hyponatremia, hypoglycaemia, hypocalcaemia, hyperuricaemia are the risk factors for perinatal brain injury. Knowledge of these abnormalities is very valuable to the paediatrician and immediate treatment of these abnormalities could help us in decreasing the perinatal mortality and morbidity.