Vol. 6, Issue 4 (2020)
Pregnancy outcome in rats following adminstration of Icacinia manni tuber
Author(s): Udokang Nsikak Ephraim, Udom Utibe Godwin, Aribo Ekpe Okpata
Abstract: Icacinia manni is a wild shrub abundantly found in most part of Africa with a unique ball-shaped underground tuber giving it its vernacular name, Earth Ball. There are reports that it is consumed directly or indirectly by man because of its high carbohydrate content. This study investigates the metabolic effect of Icacinia manni on pregnancy outcome. A total of 36 rats (24 females and 12 males), were used for this study. Twenty-four (24) female rats, weighing between 80 and 100gm were randomly sorted into two groups, A and B, of 12 rats in each group. Group A was given distilled water by mouth and allowed liberal food and water. Group B was given high dose extract (i.e. 3/10 x LD50 = 3/10 x 894.43 = 268.32mg/kg). They were also allowed liberal food and water intake throughout the period of three (3) weeks. Extract was given once daily by mouth for this period. Twelve male rats weighing between 80 and 100mg were sorted into two groups, randomly of 6 rats per group (A1 and B1). Liberal food and distilled water was allowed for Group A1 for the period of three (3) weeks. To the rats in group B1, high dose extract (268.32mg/kg) was given once daily by oral gavage. The animals were allowed liberal food and water and good ventilation for three (3) weeks. The animals were randomly sorted into four (4) mating groups. Group 1(control): Six (6) female fed with distilled water and three (3) males fed with distilled water. Group 2: Six (6) females fed with water and three (3) males fed with extract. Group 3: Six (6) female fed with extract and three (3) males fed with water. Group 4: Six (6) females fed with extract and three (3) males fed with extract. Mating was allowed for two cycles of 8 days after which the males were separated from the females. The females were observed weekly for weight gain; pregnancy and parturition. The animals were observed for a period of nine (9) weeks after mating. Duration of pregnancy, number of litters per delivery and weight of the offspring were recorded. For ease of analysis, duration of pregnancy was defined as period from separation of male rats to time of delivery. At the end of the nine (9) weeks the animals were anaethesized by chloroform and sacrificed to rule out pregnancy. They were dissected to obtain blood samples by cardiac puncture for biochemical analysis of Lipid profile and Serum protein. The livers and ovaries were harvested for histological analysis. Result showed that females receiving extracts had significantly less (p>0.05) number of litters per pregnancy as well as lower birth weight. Females receiving extracts also had prolonged duration of pregnancy. Pregnant animals that received the extract had lower levels of Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, High Density Lipoproteins as well as Low Density Lipoproteins than pregnant animals placed on distilled water (control). Pregnant animals treated with the extracts also had significantly lower (p>0.05) Total serum proteins, Serum Albumin and globulin when compared with control group. Damage on the liver and ovary was also revealed by the histology. We conclude that administration of ethanolic extract of Icacinia manni affected pregnancy outcome in rats, probably due to the effect of this extract on lipids and serum protein synthesis and metabolism.