Biochemical changes in patients infected with typhoid fever: A clinical study
Background: Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to Salmonella typhi that causes symptoms which may vary from mild to severe and usually begin six to thirty days after exposure. There is variety of biochemical changes occur in patients with typhoid fever. This study was conducted to determine biochemical changes in typhoid fever patients. Materials & Methods: This study was conducted in the department of biochemistry in year 2015. It included 60 patients diagnosed with typhi positive. Equal number of controls was also involved in the study. Physical examination was done and weight, height, blood pressure, fever or vomiting was recorded. Blood samples were collected in a gel and anticoagulant tubes from normal and typhoid infected patients. Serum glucose level, Cholesterol level, Triglycerides level, Serum proteins, albumin, globulin, ALT and AST test was performed by commercially available kits. Results: Group I had 60 patients and group II had also 60 patients. The difference was non- significant (P-1). Graph I shows that mean weight in group I patients was 77.4 kg and in group II was 70.1 kg. Mean SBP in group I patients was 108.2 mm Hg and in group II was 138.6 mm Hg. Mean DP in group I patients was 88.6 mm Hg and in group II was 74.2 mm Hg. Mean temperature in group I patients was 98.6 degree F and in group II was 98.9 degree F. The difference was significant (P < 0.05). Mean serum glucose concentration in group I was 170.4 mg/dL and in group II was 84.8 mg/dL. Serum cholesterol concentration in both groups was 180 mg/dL and 148 mg/dL respectively. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Triglyceride level in group I was 116 mg/dL and in group II was 162 mg/dL. HDL level in both groups was 50.2 mg/dL and 36.2 mg/dL respectively. LDL level in both groups was 112.4 and 76.2 mg/dL in both groups respectively. Total protein was 7.62 g/dL and 8.6 g/dL in both groups respectively. Albumin level was 5.8 g/dL and 4.2 g/dL in both groups. AST level was 52.24 U/L and 56.65 U/L in both groups respectively. ALT level was 48.82 U/L and 58.36 U/L in both groups respectively. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Typoid fever causes variety of biochemical and enzymatic changes in patients. Early diagnoses through these tests are useful in detection and management of patients.