Level of awareness of mammogram screening among women of Qatif city, Saudi Arabia
Zahra Madan Al-Hadad, Fatimah Said AlSafwani
Background: Breast cancer is a serious public health issue worldwide. Approximately 1.67 million new cases of breast cancer, representing 25% of all cancers, were diagnosed among women in 2012. Its incidence is the highest in developed countries, with rates as high as 92 per 100,000 people in North America compared with 27 per 100,000 people in Middle Africa and Eastern Asia. It is the leading cause of death among women in developing countries and the fifth cause of mortality among all cancers. In Saudi Arabia, a total of 1,473 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed among women in 2010, representing 27.4% of all newly diagnosed cancers. It ranked first among all cancers diagnosed in women in the same year, with patients aged 48 years on average at the time of diagnosis. According to that a lot of studies done about breast cancer and/or mammogram screening to assess the level of knowledge, these studies end with various results, one of them done to investigate knowledge and practices of breast cancer screening among women aged 50 years or older in order to inform the breast cancer national health program and end with results that showed very low rates of breast cancer screening in the Kingdome of Saudi Arabia and they call for educational campaign to improve breast screening.Other study done in AL Khobar and found that Forty-eight percent women had poor knowledge about breast cancer.Also, in the multiple regression analysis, age, education and occupation of women were signiﬁcant positive predictors of level of knowledge in their sample and TV was the most important source of knowledge. According to multiple studies done in this topics with their different results and according to the disease nature, morbidity, mortality and its only source of method for early screening and detection our research aim to assess the level of awareness among women of Qatif city, Saudi Arabia. Objective: to assess the level of knowledge regarding mammogram screening among women of Qatif city, Saudi Arabia. Method and Material: our study is descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted among women in Qatif city via social media (WhatsApp app) by electronic questioner within one week of December 2017. Data collection included random sample of 605 women in age’s ranges between 18 to more than 50 years. We conducted an electronic questioner constructed in Arabic, that was written based on target ages and their educational level, included questions about mammogram screening knowledge and sources of knowledge also asked about mammogram screening general information. From the age of screening, other risky cases and mammogram screening safety and side effects and end it with questions related to mammogram screening awareness programs that was provided across the country to increase the level of awareness of breast cancer and mammogram screening and asked about personal view regarding how importance this screening is. Results: The study showed that (40.3%) which is the majority of the sample range in ages between 18 to 29, more than half of the sample had college education (58.7%), secondary school education came second to it by (29.1%). Regarding knowledge about mammogram screening from 605 women (84%) had knowledge and in correlation to the age and level of knowledge about mammogram screening, it found to be high in age group between 18 to 29 years, it showed 180 women from 244 had knowledge. Both age groups of 30 to 40 and 41 to 50 from 156 and 150 women, equally 138 women had knowledge and in women more than 50 years, 52 women from 55 had knowledge. In correlation between educational level and knowledge about mammogram screening, it found to be high in women who undergo college education, 355 women as a total and 321 women from them had knowledge about mammogram screening, from secondary school education 128 women from 176 had knowledge about mammogram screening, postgraduate study and intermediate school had 29 from 32 and 21 from 30 women had knowledge about mammogram screening, least numbers found in women who got elementary school education and in women who is not enrolled in educational institutions, that 6 from 9 and 3 from 3 women had knowledge about mammogram screening. The sources of knowledge regarding mammogram screening showed awareness campaign had the highest percentage among other sources by (27.3%). while the hospitals and PHC (18%) as a source of awareness, social media, TV and Internet, friends and family and educational institutions had a close percentages (15.4%), (11.5%), (11.3%) and (10.3%). The least percentages found in women who had breast cancer or one of family member and in others by (4.8%) and (1.4%) (56.5%) more than half of the sample had knowledge about the proper age to start screening. (72%) had knowledge about risky cases that need early detection and screening. Regarding mammogram misconception ideas, (7.6%) had misconception idea about mammogram screening hazards. (3%) had misconception idea about mammogram that it leads to cancer or cancer metastasis and (14.9%) had misconception idea about mammogram screening thatuse a high amount of radiation. More than half of the sample (67.4%) know that hospitalization is not needed to undergo mammogram screening. In our study we found that 427 (70.6%) of women had knowledge about mammogram screening programs provided by our country, and (73.7%) had knowledge about the availability of mammogram screening van in Saudi Arabia. At the end (79%) women believe that mammogram screening is an important screening, while (4.6%) believe that mammogram screening is not important. Conclusion: Our study showed good level of knowledge regarding mammogram screening among women of Qatif city, Saudi Arabia, that differ among ages, and educational level. Also, there are some misconception ideas that still need to be corrected about the safety, hazard and side effects. our research showed that awareness campaign, hospitals/PHC and social media and other sources play a role in awareness of Qatif city, specially awareness campaign (27.3%) that was provided and established to educate, guide and to improve people knowledge about breast cancer and mammogram screening, by increasing their knowledge, early detection and treatment will reduce the mortality and increase the survival rates.
Zahra Madan Al-Hadad, Fatimah Said AlSafwani. Level of awareness of mammogram screening among women of Qatif city, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Medical and Health Research, Volume 4, Issue 1, 2018, Pages 26-34