Knowledge of iodine nutrition and iodine deficiency disorders among women of reproductive age in Obudu local government area of Cross River State, Nigeria
Regina Idu Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Elizabeth Libuo-Beshel NJI
Introduction: Micronutrient deficiency conditions, in which iodine deficiency is one of the major ones, are silent epidemics affecting over 2 billion people globally. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) are responsible for the world’s most dominant preventable brain damage. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy carries severe consequences for both mother and child that includes; still birth, spontaneous abortion and congenital abnormalities. Thus, improving maternal health especially in goitre endemic areas may be contingent on reducing iodine deficiency disorders. Objective: To determine the respondents knowledge level of iodine nutrition and iodine deficiency disorders in women of reproductive age in Obudu Local Government Area of Cross River State. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was employed. A total of 330 women of reproductive age constituted the respondents. A semi-structured questionnaire that was interviewer-administered was used to elicit information from the respondents. Observations for visible goitre and urinary iodine concentration levels in a sub-set (10%) of the sample determined. Results were presented in frequencies, percentages, charts and tables. Chi-square (ꭕ2) was used to test for association between variables at 5% significance level. Main Results: Results showed that one-third of the respondents, 102 (30.9%) had attained secondary education. Majority of household respondents 155 (47%) had good knowledge scores about iodine nutrition. The association between respondents’ knowledge of iodine nutrition and educational level was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.00001), implying that the higher the educational level, the higher the knowledge on iodine nutrition. Two-third of the respondents 223 (67.6%) were found to have poor knowledge about IDDs. Visible goitre was observed in 4% of the respondents. Urine analysis showed that the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 139.7μg/L and 42% of the sample sub-set had UIC lower than 150μg/L considered deficient. Conclusion: When the poor knowledge about iodine nutrition and consequences of its lack, the TGR of 4% observed in this study are aligned with the results of the UIC of this study, then a concerning trend of moderately high IDD prevalence emerges. Renewed good public health education on IDDs is advocated.
Regina Idu Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Elizabeth Libuo-Beshel NJI. Knowledge of iodine nutrition and iodine deficiency disorders among women of reproductive age in Obudu local government area of Cross River State, Nigeria. International Journal of Medical and Health Research, Volume 5, Issue 8, 2019, Pages 167-173